In our VLANs, we announce a subset of our printers with Cups. In those networks, you could install Cups without configuring printers. In other places, you should prefere printing over LPR as described in Printing with LPR (Linux, BSD, UNIX).
You just need to install CUPS base installation and BSD compatibilty commands from your distribution - with Debian GNU/Linux
apt-get install cups cups-bsd is enough.
Change the Cups configuration (typically in
/etc/cups/cupsd.conf) as following:
Browsing On Printcap /etc/printcap
Now (re-)start cupsys with
/etc/init.d/cups restart and watch
/var/log/cups/error.log. You should see entrys like:
I [13/Feb/2004:17:10:39 +0100] Added remote printer “hpt_d17”…
Now you see all available printers in
/etc/printcap and can use them with the command
lpr -Phpt_d17 <filename>
See also How to use lpr for details on lpr command line usage.
Most applications get the printers without your intervention.